Hemorrhagin directly damages the blood vessels by loosening the gaps between endothelial cells, thus injuring the basement membrane of the capillaries.

Pitting edema

Pitting edema Edema is swelling in the body caused by excess fluid. If you press on a swollen area and an indentation or pit remains, it’s called pitting edema.

Incogaulable blood

Incoagulable blood where the blood will not clot in the 20 minutes WBCT.

Blisters-resulting in the accumulation of a proteinaceous fluid as a consequence of the collection of woundexudate.

Hemoglobinuria caused by intravascular hemolysis. Red colour urine


Hematuria or havingpassed dark brown/black urine.

Urticaria- Some people develop skin rashes triggered by the reaction of ASV after its administration; the skin becomes itchy, raised, red or skin-coloured.

Ptosis– is the drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.

Blood in vomit

Haematemesis is the vomiting of blood. It is caused from the internal bleeding after from the gastrointestinal tract by the effect of haemotoxic venom of Russell’s viper.

Necrosis is caused by due the effect of cytotoxic factors of snake venom which result in the unregulated digestion of cell components.

Pulmonary edema: Pulmonary edema is a fatal manifestation of snakebites and can occur with both viper and elapid bites.Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.

Dysphagia is the medical term for swallowing difficulties. Some people with dysphagia have problems swallowing certain foods or liquids, while others can’t swallow at all.

Cellulitis: A common and potentially serious bacterial skin infection. There is swelling of cells. Caused due to the anaerobic bacteria present in the snake’s mouth.

Oliguria is defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants, less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children, and less than 400 mL or 500 mL per 24h in adults – this equals 17 or 21 mL/hour.

Haemoptysis is the coughing of blood.

Signs and Symptoms of Snakebite

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